aviotech/rules-01.html - 2010-
updated: August 20th, 2013


- LEGAL RULES for New ULM - S-LSA - Experimental aircraft


REMARK: EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT

As uncertified experimental aircraft, all products are not permitted to be used for commercial purposes under FAA regulations.
Other countries, however, may have different rules.
Several people have expressed interest in using these aeroplanes overseas for various utilitarian purposes, but those opportunities have not yet been exploited.
Even here in the US, it is possible for some humanitarian, military, government, police, and non-profit agencies to use experimental aircraft in utilitarian roles, provided that they are not used “for hire or compensation”

US - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

(a) No person may operate an aircraft that has an experimental certificate—
(1) For other than the purpose for which the certificate was issued; or
(2) Carrying persons or property for compensation or hire.

(b) No person may operate an aircraft that has an experimental certificate outside of an area assigned by the Administrator until it is shown that—
(1) The aircraft is controllable throughout its normal range of speeds and throughout all the manoeuvres to be executed; and
(2) The aircraft has no hazardous operating characteristics or design features.

(c) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator in special operating limitations, no person may operate an aircraft that has an experimental certificate over a densely populated area or in a congested airway.
The Administrator may issue special operating limitations for particular aircraft to permit takeoffs and landings to be conducted over a densely populated area or in a congested airway, in accordance with terms and conditions specified in the authorization in the interest of safety in air commerce.

(d) Each person operating an aircraft that has an experimental certificate shall—
(1) Advise each person carried of the experimental nature of the aircraft;
(2) Operate under VFR, day only, unless otherwise specifically authorized by the Administrator; and
(3) Notify the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out of airports with operating control towers.

(e) The Administrator may prescribe additional limitations that the Administrator
considers necessary, including limitations on the persons that may be carried in the aircraft.


The FAA maintains an excellent website with comprehensive details at:
The FAA Certifications: click on : The FAA - Legal information -

Amateur-built aircraft in the US operate under 14 CFR Part 91.


Experimental Aircraft Association:
The EAA: click on : The EAA - The Association link -
All information available from USA.

"EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT or HELICOPETERS" are actually sold everywhere.
Commercially the "experimental aircraft" are the most important sector of the new private aviation field.
The Aircraft limitation:
Engine: one - Power: no limits.
Passengers: 10
MTOW : no limits


The main legal point is just one: the owner has the 100% of responsibility related the safety of the aircraft:
it means from the construction stage to his life-time.
In consideration of such legal aspect it's clear that aircraft/helicopter could not be utilized for a commercial purpose.
But might be possible to utilize the "experimental aircrafts" for several activities - after a verification to be done with the local authorities -.
Local authorities could ask for extra inspections, or the installation of particular devices, or to submit extra technical documentation, etc.
Local authorities could also issue a special authorisation related to the type of use/mission with limitation related to weather conditions, fly areas, etc.
A list of use/mission that seems possible made with "experimental aircraft"

1 - Agriculture: utilisation by the pilot-owner for spray operation / survey / fire protection.

2 - Photo/ TV / Movie reportages mission carried out by the free-lance / pilot operator.

Mission related the acquisition of pictures, etc. for the press, TV news, reportages, etc.

3 - Thermal images acquisition to detect thermal anomaly on electric lines, buildings, industrial structures, chemical plants. The activity will be carried out by the pilot-owner.

4 - Hotel / Resorts / Villages : transport services carried out for the activity of hotel only.
Transports of guests, of goods under the responsibility of the hotel - ownership.

5 - Private Clinic: transport services carried out for the activity of clinic only. Transports of guests, of goods, emergency services made under the responsibility of the clinic - ownership.

6 - Private Industrial Enterprises: transport services carried out for the activity of enterprise only.
Transports of guests, of goods, emergency services made under the responsibility of the enterprise - ownership.

7 - Private Logistic Enterprises: transport services carried out for the activity of logistic enterprise only.
Parcel / mails quick delivery, quick delivery of medical / pharmaceutical products.
Transports of special goods, emergency services made under the responsibility of the logistic enterprise - ownership.

8 - Private Transport Enterprises of Valuable Goods : transport services carried out for the activity of enterprise only.
Transports of valuable goods, currencies, metals, etc.
Main users: banks, mines, jewellers' shop, etc.

9 - ARMY, AIR FORCES, NAVY. Normally the Army, the Air Forces and the Navy are not subject to the Commercial rules and are authorized to operate in accordance with their own requirements and rules.

10 - POLICE - LAW ENFORCEMENT MISSION - FIRE BRIGADE - CUSTOM - ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BRIGADE - etc.

Normally all special corps are not subject to the Commercial rules and are authorized to operate in accordance with their own requirements and rules.


The main ADVANTAGES of the experimental aircraft are:
1 - Purchasing low cost.
2 - Low cost of the maintenance.
3 - High quality of the construction realized with the most updated technology.
4 - No need of certified spare parts.
5 - No need of certified engine.
6 - No need of expensive inspection.
7 - Possibility to install the most modern avionics, as the certified aircraft, available for the non - certified aircraft at a low price.

What is a light sport airplane? -LSA-

All light sport aircraft are designed under a "consensus" standard established under A.S.T.M. 2245.09.
Manufacturers conduct flight tests and submit a "Statement of Conformity" to the F.A.A. attesting to the fact that they comply with A.S.T.M. 2245.09.
Interestingly, the FAA is not obligated to review the data and must simply "accept" the data submitted by the manufacturer.
Essentially, light sport aircraft are "self-certified".
This is one reason why only the manufacturer can approve any equipment or modifications to their aircraft.
The good news is that this method of "certification" significantly lowers the cost of airframe development and approval.

So, other than FAA acceptance, what are the differences in an light sport aircraft?
Light sport aircraft are limited as follows—

· Single engine
· No more than 2 seats
· A gross take-off weight of no more that 1320 lbs (1420 lbs for amphibious aircraft)
· Maximum speed of 138 mph
· Minimum speed of 45 mph
· No complex systems (constant speed prop, turbo chargers, retractable gear, etc.)


The FAA Certifications: click on : The FAA - Legal information -

- ULM Europe - - Europe - ULM web site and related links -

ULM - Advanced ULM - EXPERIMENTAL : Links to:
ULM etc. ALL EUROPEAN' Nations - All infos

EUROPEAN MICROLIGHT FEDERATION - All infos


Experimental Category
FAA - EXPERIMENTAL Category - Definition -

FAA - EXPERIMENTAL Category - -

- EAA - EXPERIMENTER -


The USA' Rules -1-

USA- CAR Part. 6 - Rotorcraft Airworthiness - Normal Category - All infos

The USA' Rules - Airworthiness certificate - FAA - 2-

The Experimental Aircraft Info web site

The EASA Info web site

Italia: Ultraleggero Avanzato

Italia: DPR 133/ 9 Luglio 2010

Ultra Light Helicopters - Rules - 1 - USA

Ultra Light Helicopters - Rules - 2 - USA

ULM etc. CANADA

ULM etc. FRANCE -1-

ULM etc. FRANCE -2- 11 Mars 2012 -

ULM etc. FRANCE -3 - Hélicoptères ultra-légers - Classe 6 des ULM -

FELA Federation Européenne des Loisires Aériens -

ULM etc. U.K. -1- Forum

ULM etc. U.K. -2-

ULM etc. U.K. -3-

ULM etc. NETHERLANDS


Please check local Rules prior to purchase your aircraft
ULM : MTOW 450 Kg - 480 Kg Canada
ULM Amphibious: MTOW 500 Kg - 530 Kg Canada
Advanced ULM : To be equipped with Radio - Emergency Locator Transponder ( E.L.T.) - Transponder A/C

LSA : MTOW 598 Kg - 1320 Lbs.
LSA Amphibious: MTOW 648 Kg - 1430 Lbs.

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